Category Archives: Minor Prophets

The Gospel according to the Minor Prophets Week 13 – Conclusion

This past Sunday we came to the end of my class on the Minor Prophets. In an effort to try to summarize what we covered in the previous twelve weeks, I focused on two key concepts and four key themes.

Two Key Concepts

  1. The Covenantal Context. After discussing things like author, date and historical context we quickly moved to what we called the covenantal context. We did this because the respective covenants were the governing structure of how God interacts with his people throughout the Old Testament. So in looking at each Minor Prophet, we paid careful attention to how they drew upon the Abrahamic (Gen 12:1-3), Mosaic (Exod 19-24), and Davidic (2 Sam 7) covenants.
  2. Initial & Final Fulfillment. Although we tend to think of the relationship between promise and fulfillment as a simple one-to-one correspondence, we have seen that in the Minor Prophets that is often not the case. The various promises made in the Minor Prophets often have an initial fulfillment in an event in the near future of the prophet while at the same time having a final fulfillment in the distant future. Nowhere was this clearer than in our discussion of the Day of the LORD. Each of the various “Days of the LORD” are only an initial fulfillment of the final Day of the LORD at the end of human history.

Four Key Themes

Although there were a number of themes that we could have highlighted, the following four were particularly important in light of their prominence in the New Testament:

  1. Temple. As we have seen the rebuilt temple was puny compared to Solomon’s original temple, as well as the temple prophesied in Ezekiel 40–48. But God reassured his people that this rebuilt temple was a sort of “down payment’ on the fulfillment of his promises (Zech 4:8-11). In perhaps the last OT book written, God warns his people of his impending visit to his temple (Malachi 3:1-4). That promise finds its fulfillment in the NT. John the Baptist is identified as the messenger sent to prepare the way of the LORD (Mark 1:2-4). He prepares the people for the incarnate Christ to visit his temple (Mark 11:15-18). Of course, we have also talked in here about the fact that the NT identifies Jesus as the true temple of God (John 2:13-22), and we as the church are God’s eschatological temple (Eph 2:11-22; 1 Pet 2:4-10).
  2. Torah. Although the promise of the Law being written on his people’s hearts is found in Jeremiah and Ezekiel, we do see a related promise in Micah 4:1-8. The Law of the LORD will go out from Zion and rule over a restored people of God. To properly understand this promise we have to combine it with the promise of the gift of the Spirit in Joel 2:28-32. It is the giving of the Spirit that enables God’s people to obey God’s Law. The promise of the gift of the Spirit is fulfilled on the Day of Pentecost in Acts 2. He enables God’s people to live in step with God’s Law.
  3. Turf. As we noted above, God promises to restore his people to the land in several places (Hosea 2:21–3:5). This promise is rooted in the Abrahamic and Mosaic Covenants. Building upon hints in the Minor Prophets this promise of restoration to the land is expanded into the hope of a new creation. In the NT this hope is most clearly articulated in Romans 4:13, where Paul claims that God promised that Abraham would inherit the world, and Revelation 21–22, where the new heavens and earth are described.
  4. Throne. In the aftermath of the devastation of exile, God kept alive the hope of a Davidic king. But when that royal dynasty never materialized after their return to the land, the hunger for a Son of David (Micah 5:2-5; Amos 9:11-15). Of course, in the NT it is obvious that Jesus is the promised Son of David who will rule over God’s people (Mark 10:46-52; Rom 1:2-4).

Summary List of the Theological Big Idea for Each Minor Prophet

As a final review tool, I have provided a summary chart on your handout for each Minor Prophet and the Theological Big Idea that I identified for it.

 

Theological Big Idea for Each Minor Prophet

Hosea God’s people must turn from their idolatrous pursuit of lovers who will not satisfy and return to the Lord, their true husband and redeemer.
Joel In the coming day of God’s universal judgment, those who call on the name of Jesus Christ will be filled with His Spirit to enjoy the new creation with Him forever.
Amos When the Day of the Lord comes, God will judge the sins of His people and reconstitute His people under a Davidic king to inhabit a new creation.
Obadiah God will soon defeat the enemies of His people and establish His rule over His people forever.
Jonah God’s extravagant compassion towards us should prompt us to be conduits of compassion to others.
Micah Because our sin has been judged at the cross and we live in the last days, we must walk humbly with our truly unique God in heartfelt obedience.
Nahum God will judge the wicked and restore His people to freedom through His ultimate Warrior-King, Jesus Christ.
Habakkuk Even when we cannot trace God’s hand of justice or providence, we can patiently trust and rejoice in His character.
Zephaniah Yahweh is a mighty warrior who brings judgment but saves the remnant who flee to him as their King.
Haggai Yahweh will renew His presence among His people and re-establish His reign over His people by sending Jesus Christ as His Messianic King.
Zechariah God’s people already participate in the restored Jerusalem through repentance and faith in Jesus as they await the consummation of God’s kingdom.
Malachi God calls his people to repent of our apathy towards his proper worship and fear his name in anticipation of the great and fearful Day of the LORD.

Want to hear more? Check out the links below:

Week 13 – Conclusion (Audio)

Week 13 – Conclusion (Handout)

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The Gospel according to the Minor Prophets Week 12 – Joel

In Week 12 of my class on the Gospel according to the Minor Prophets, we looked at Joel. Almost nothing is known about Joel; he refers to himself as the “son of Pethuel” (1:1) though that does not help us identify him. Since the book has few precise historical references it is difficult to identify when the book was written, and as a result scholars suggest dates ranging from the ninth to the fourth century. On the whole, I think it is more likely that Joel ministered in the post-exilic period, sometime during the fifth or fourth century.

Whenever Joel ministered, Judah was experiencing the covenant curses that God had promised if they disobeyed (1:2-2:11). So Joel calls God’s people to genuine repentance in light in light of the coming Day of the Lord (2:13-17). There will come a day when God will restore his people (2:18-27) and pour out his Spirit on all of them so that all who call upon the name of the Lord will be saved (2:28-32). The nations will be judged (3:1-16) and God’s people will experience the abundance of the new creation where God dwells with his people (3:17-21).

I would summarize the theological big idea of Joel as this: In the coming day of God’s universal  judgment, those who call on the name of Jesus Christ will be filled with His Spirit to enjoy the new creation with Him forever. The day of God’s judgment is coming for all humanity, but all those who call on the name of Jesus Christ will be filled with His Spirit to enjoy the new creation with Him forever.  All human history is careening towards that great day, and on that Day each one of our lives will be measured against the standard of perfect righteousness. Jesus Christ will judge the living and the dead, the righteous and the wicked. What will that Day be for you, friend? Will it be destruction, or will it be deliverance? We cannot prepare for that day by washing the filthy rags of our own righteousness. We must change into proper wedding clothes to sit down at the great banquet table, and those clothes are not in our wardrobe. We must call upon the name of the Lord and ask Him to count Jesus’ death as the one we deserve for our sin, and to credit Jesus’ righteousness to us. That is what will save us from the wrath of God in the ultimate Day of the Lord. Until then, may He fill us with His Spirit to proclaim His excellencies and may He preserve us spotless until the Day of Christ.

Want to hear more? You can check out the audio and the handout below:

Week 12 – Joel

Week 12 – Joel (Handout)

 

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The Gospel according to the Minor Prophets Week 11 – Malachi

This past Sunday was Week 11 in my class on the Gospel according to the Minor Prophets. We looked at Malachi, whose name means “my messenger.” Nothing else about him is known, as he does not identify any of his ancestors or any of the rulers in power during his ministry. Despite the lack of clear historical references, it seems probable that Malachi was prophesying sometime after the rebuilding of the temple in 516 B.C. but before the return of Ezra (458 B.C.) or Nehemiah (445 B.C.).

Whereas Judah’s problem before the exile was idolatry, upon their return their biggest problem was apathy. The second temple was a pale reflection of the Solomonic one, they remained under the political control of Persia and conditions in the land remained challenging. They were questioning Yahweh’s love for them (1:2), dishonoring God with blemished sacrifices (1:8), withholding their giving (3:8-10) and claiming that it is vain to serve Yahweh (3:14). Using a series of six “disputations,” Malachi writes to (1) rebuke Israel’s apathy, (2) recall the people to covenant loyalty and (3) reassure God’s people of the coming Day of the Lord.

Malachi is especially concerned with the failure of the priests to lead the people in proper worship. Not only are they offering blemished sacrifices, but they are failing to teach God’s people His ways (1:6-2:9). But there will come a day when God sends his messenger to prepare the way for the Lord to come suddenly to his temple (3:1). Meanwhile, God’s people should remain faithful to Mosaic covenant in anticipation of God sending Elijah in advance of the great Day of the Lord (4:4-6).

After studying Malachi, I would summarize the theological big idea as this: God calls his people to repent of our apathy towards his proper worship and fear his name in anticipation of the great and fearful Day of the LORD. The failure of the priesthood points forward to our need for a perfect high priest, one who will obey in every detail (Heb 7:23-28).  God has already sent his messenger John the Baptist to prepare the way for the Lord Jesus Christ (1:2-4), who came suddenly to the temple and brought judgment (Mark 11:15-19). And just as God’s people in Malachi’s day were instructed to look back to their covenant with Yahweh in anticipation of his future coming, so we today should look back to the work of Jesus in establishing the new covenant in anticipation of his return to consummate his promises.

Want to hear more? You can check out the audio and the handout below:

Week 11 – Malachi

Week 11 – Malachi (Handout)

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The Gospel according to the Minor Prophets Week 10 – Zechariah

Hard to believe that this past Sunday we reached Week 10 in my class on the Gospel according to the Minor Prophets. We looked at Zechariah, who in addition to his own prophetic book is mentioned in Ezra as well (5:1; 6:14). Those references confirm what we learn in Zechariah itself.

Zechariah was a contemporary of Haggai. His first prophetic revelation came in the eighth month of the second year of the reign of Darius, or late October / early November in 520 B.C. (right in the middle of Haggai’s four-month ministry). But his ministry continued on through December 7, 518 B.C. As with Haggai, a significant focus of his ministry was the encouragement of the people to finish the reconstruction of the temple, a project completed in 516 B.C.

According to one estimate, Zechariah is quoted/alluded to/echoed some 67x, with most coming in Revelation and the Gospels. This should not be surprising, given that the key themes in Zechariah are the temple, a Davidic king, and the restoration of Jerusalem. All of these themes are picked up in the New Testament and focused on the person of Christ and his work.

I would summarize the theological big idea as this: God’s people already participate in the restored Jerusalem through repentance and faith in Jesus as they await the consummation of God’s kingdom. Zechariah’s promise of God establishing his kingdom centered on a restored Jerusalem has already been inaugurated through the death and resurrection of Jesus. As a result Zechariah’s call for repentance on the part of those who want to share in this kingdom is just as relevant, and perhaps even more so, for us today, because we have seen how that promise has been inaugurated in Christ. Thus the call for repentance from our sin is at the same time a call for faith in Yahweh’s anointed king, Jesus Christ, who not only announced the kingdom but inaugurated it. All who repent from their sin and believe in Jesus already participate in the restored Jerusalem, which is in the heavens awaiting the consummation of the new heavens and earth.

So then how should we respond to the message of Zechariah. First, we should rejoice that God has sent the long-promised Davidic king Jesus Christ to inaugurate the kingdom. Our experience of the Spirit is evidence that the kingdom has begun, and we are participants in it. So when Yahweh calls Zion to rejoice, he is speaking directly to us. Second, we should grow in our repentance from our sin and faith in Christ. The way we show that we prize God’s kingdom and prove that we are already experiencing it is a life of repentance and a manifestation of the fruit of His Spirit in us. Repentance and faith are not one-time events that begin the Christian life; they are also way in which we continually experience the kingdom. Third, we should long for the day when Christ will return and consummate the kingdom. If we truly prize the establishment of God’s kingdom above all else, we will long to see it realized in all its fullness in the new heavens and the new earth. Can you fathom that day when every last stain and remnant of sin will be done away? When the curse that hangs over this present earth is removed and all creation perfectly reflects the radiance of her maker and redeemer? So as we go into worship this morning, let us rejoice in Jesus our King, repent from our sin, and long for the consummation of God’s kingdom.

Want to hear more? You can check out the audio and the handout below:

Week 10 – Zechariah

Week 10 – Zechariah (Handout)

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The Gospel according to the Minor Prophets Week 9 – Haggai

This past Sunday we reached Week 9 in my class on the Gospel according to the Minor Prophets. We looked at Haggai, who in addition to his own prophetic book is mentioned several times in Ezra (5:1; 6:14). Those references confirm what we learn in Haggai itself.

The prophecies recorded in Haggai span a four month period stretching from August 29, 520 BC to December 18, 520 BC. When the remnant returned from exile in 539/538, they had begun work on rebuilding the temple (Ezra 3:1-13). But in the face of opposition they had abandoned the project in 536. So by the time that Haggai prophesied, the project had been dormant for about 16 years. Haggai (along with Zechariah) called God’s people to turn from their own selfish pursuits and resume rebuilding the temple.

From this short prophetic book of Haggai, I would summarize the theological big idea as this: Yahweh will renew His presence among His people and re-establish His reign over His people by sending Jesus Christ as His Messianic King. God reassures Haggai that the latter glory of the temple will surpass its former glory (2:9). That promise finds its fulfillment in Jesus Christ, who is the true temple (John 2:18-22). Because we as believers are united to Christ by faith, we are God’s temple, both corporately (Eph 2:11-22; 1 Pet 2:4-9) and individually (1 Cor 6:18-20). In the New Heavens and Earth there will be no temple, because the entirety of creation at that point will be God’s dwelling place (Rev 21:22). Haggai ends with a word of reassurance to Zerubbabel, the governor of Judah. God refers to him as signet ring on his finger. As a descendant of David it is through him that the Messiah will ultimately come (Matt 1:12).

Want to hear more? You can check out the audio and the handout below:

Week 9 – Haggai (Part 1) (AUDIO: N.B. Because of problems with the recording, only the first 40 minutes or so are available; sorry!)

Week 9 – Haggai (Handout)

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The Gospel according to the Minor Prophets Week 8 – Habakkuk & Obadiah

This past Sunday was week 8 in my class on the Gospel according to the Minor Prophets. Because the class is 13 weeks and I do both an introductory and summary week, that means that there is one week where I double up and do two minor prophets. So I combined Habakkuk and Obadiah.

Little is known about Habakkuk other than he saw this prophetic oracle and in response wrote the prayer/psalm that comprises chapter 3. He likely received this prophetic revelation after the death of King Josiah (609 BC) and the initial invasion by the Babylonians (605 BC). One thing that makes this prophetic book unique is that it take the form of a complaint by the prophet and God’s response.

That complaint centers on how long God will wait before bringing judgment on sinful Judah (1:2-4). God’s shocking response is that he will use the Babylonians to execute judgment on them (1:5-11). Habakkuk responds with incredulity; how can God use a people more wicked than Judah to bring judgment on them (1:12-2:1). God responds by assuring Habakkuk that he will also in due time bring judgment on Babylon as well (2:2-20). Habakkuk in turn responds with a prayer that celebrates God’s sovereignty in judgment and salvation (3:1-19).

While there is much to glean from Habakkuk, I would summarize the theological big idea as this: Even when we cannot trace God’s hand of justice or providence, we can patiently trust and rejoice in His character. Habakkuk models for us how to properly question God when we don’t understand what is happening around us. He does so with humility, ready to receive correction (2:1). Those who are righteous will live by faith, trusting in God’s faithful character (2:4). The ultimate example of this is the cross. What seemed like the end of God’s plan was in fact the centerpiece of saving his people.

Like Habakkuk, we know little about the man Obadiah. Depending on how his name is vocalized, it means either “servant of God” or “worshiper of God.” Although there are no clear indicators of when he ministered, the most likely date is sometime shortly after the destruction of Jerusalem (586 BC). The main focus of this brief minor prophet is judgment on Edom for not only failing to help Judah in her hour of need but actively mocking and looting them. God assures his people that Edom will one day pay for her sins, just like all the nations.

The final line of the book points towards the theological big idea: God will soon defeat the enemies of His people and establish His rule over His people forever. Jesus began his ministry by announcing that the time the time was fulfilled and the kingdom of God was at hand. He could claim that because he was the long-promised Davidic king inaugurated that kingdom through his life of perfect obedience, his miraculous ministry, his sacrificial death on the cross for our sins, his resurrection from the dead, and his triumphant ascension to the right hand of the Father. And one day he will return in glory to consummate his kingdom in a new heavens and new earth where we will dwell with him forever.

Want to hear more? You can check out the audio and the handout below:

Week 8 – Habakkuk & Obadiah (AUDIO)

Week 8 – Habakkuk & Obadiah (Handout)

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The Gospel according to the Minor Prophets Week 7 – Zephaniah

This past Sunday was week 7 in my class on the Gospel according to the Minor Prophets. We worked our way through Zephaniah, one of my favorite Minor Prophets. Based on the brief genealogy in 1:1 he appears to have been the great-great-grandson of King Hezekiah of Judah (715-686 BC). He prophesied during the reign of Josiah (640-609 BC), during which the book of the Law was rediscovered in the temple (ca. 622 BC; see 2 Kings 22:8-13). Given the number of places where Zephaniah seems to echo the language of Deuteronomy, it seems possible that he wrote after this rediscovery but before the destruction of Nineveh in 612 BC.

The main theological theme in the book is the Day of the LORD. Throughout the book Zephaniah describes the utter destruction and desolation that will come when the fire of God’s jealous wrath is unleashed. The Day of the LORD will bring judgment on God’s enemies and salvation for his people. On the one hand the focus in Zephaniah is on the impending destruction of Jerusalem that eventually comes in 586 BC (1:7-13; 3:1-8). On the other hand, the language used goes beyond that event to the judgment that is coming on the entire world (1:2-6, 14-18). That’s because all throughout history there are a series of “days of the LORD” that anticipate the final and ultimate “Day of the LORD” at the end of human history. These small “d” days of the LORD include the destruction of the Northern Kingdom (722 BC) and the destruction of Jerusalem (586 BC), as well as the crucifixion, Pentecost, and the destruction of Jerusalem (70 AD). All of these events in some way anticipate the final Day of the Lord at the end of human history when God will bring final judgment on his enemies and consummate the salvation of his people.

How can we as God’s people today benefit from Zephaniah? What is it that God has to say to us today through this Minor Prophet?

I believe the starting point is determining the theological big idea, which I would summarize as follows: Yahweh is a mighty warrior who brings judgment but saves the remnant who flee to him as their King.

While Zephaniah describes in terrifying detail the coming Day of the LORD, he closes with a stunning picture of God restoring his people (3:14-20). As the true King of Israel Jesus dwells in the midst of his people. He is our mighty warrior who rejoices over us with gladness, is quiet in his love, and exults over us with loud singing.

Want to hear more? You can check out the audio and the handout below:

Week 7 – Zephaniah (AUDIO)

Week 7 – Zephaniah (Handout)

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The Gospel according to the Minor Prophets Week 6 – Nahum

This past Sunday was week 6 in my class on the Gospel according to the Minor Prophets. We worked our way through Nahum, one of the least-known Minor Prophets. Little is known about Nahum of Elkosh; scholars are even unsure where Elkosh was! His name means “comfort/compassion” which highlights the central message of his prophecy: to comfort Judah with the news of Assyria’s impending destruction. The book was written sometime between the destruction of Thebes in 664 BC (mentioned in 3:8 as something that has already happened) and the destruction of Nineveh in 612 BC (announced in advance by Nahum).

There are several key biblical-theological themes in Nahum: God’s jealous love for his people, God’s wrath towards his enemies, and God’s power and sovereignty of God are among the most prominent.

How can we as God’s people today benefit from Nahum? What is it that God has to say to us today through this Minor Prophet?

I believe the starting point is determining the theological big idea, which I would summarize as follows: God will judge the wicked and restore His people to freedom through His ultimate Warrior-King, Jesus Christ.

Some people think of God as meek grandfather or perhaps even a Santa Claus like figure who simply winks at sin and gives people what they want. To such people Nahum reminds us that God is a jealous God who will pour out his just wrath on his enemies. But God’s people must never think that they are somehow better than those who stand under God’s wrath, because we only avoid that wrath by the mercy of God. And our experience of mercy required God pouring out the wrath that we deserve for our sin onto his Son, Jesus Christ. God commissions us to call all people to flee the wrath to come and seek refuge in Christ. For there is coming a day when Christ will return and execute the righteous wrath and judgment of God on all his enemies (Rev 19:11-21).

Want to hear more? You can check out the audio and the handout below:

Week 6 – Nahum (AUDIO)

Week 6 – Nahum (Handout)

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The Gospel according to the Minor Prophets Week 5 – Jonah

This past Sunday was week 5 in my class on the Gospel according to the Minor Prophets. We worked our way through Jonah, one of the most memorable Minor Prophets. The book itself does not indicate when Jonah ministered, but if he is the same prophet referred to in 2 Kings 14:25 he would have been active during the middle of the 8th century. But unlike the other prophetic books, Jonah is almost exclusively historical narrative that focuses on the actions of the prophet and God’s call to preach to Nineveh.

Nineveh was one of the key cities in the Assyrian Empire. The people of Israel felt towards Assyria the way that most Americans feel towards Al-Qaeda. The Assyrians were brutal towards their enemies, and had been a pain in Israel’s side for many years. Yet God called Jonah to go preach to Nineveh, a “great city.”

There are several key biblical-theological themes in Jonah: God’s compassion for the nations, the universal scope of his plan for the world, and the sovereignty of God.

How can we as God’s people today benefit from Jonah? What is it that God has to say to us today through this Minor Prophet?

I believe the starting point is determining the theological big idea, which I would summarize as follows: God’s extravagant compassion towards us should prompt us to be conduits of compassion to others.

By nature we are ethno-centric. We think that we are the center of God’s plan. But the scope of God’s plan for the world is to create worshipers from every tribe, tongue, and nation. And in order to accomplish this God sent someone better than Jonah. Someone who, rather than fleeing when God called him, took on flesh and lived a life of perfect obedience to God. Someone who instead of spending three days and three nights in belly of the fish for his own rebellion spend three days and night in the grave for our rebellion. Someone who instead of complaining that God shows mercy to the wicked gave his life so that God could show mercy to the wicked.

Want to hear more? You can check out the audio and the handout below:

Week 5 – Jonah (AUDIO)

Week 5 – Jonah (Handout)

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The Gospel according to the Minor Prophets Week 4 – Hosea

This past Sunday was week 4 in my class on the Gospel according to the Minor Prophets. We worked our way through Hosea, one of the best known Minor Prophets. He ministered during the reign of four kings of Judah (Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, & Hezekiah). One northern king is also mentioned: Jeroboam II. This results in a ministry that could have ranged from  753-687 B.C. (66 years). While probably not that long, Hosea ministered during the last half of the 8th century, a time when Assyria wiped out the Israel and seriously threatened Judah. He watched in horror as both the northern and southern kingdoms engaged in idolatry with Baal and other gods. Central to his message was the imagery of Yahweh as the husband of his people, which led to Yahweh calling Hosea to take a wife of whoredom to visualize Israel and Judah’s unfaithfulness. Thus Hosea writes to indict God’s people for their spiritual adultery and call them to return to Yahweh their true husband.

The central biblical-theological themes in Hosea is the depiction of God’s relationship with his people as a marriage. This is a theme that runs throughout the Bible, with the clearest expression coming in Ephesians 5:22-33 and climaxing in the Wedding Supper of the Lamb (Rev 19:6-9).

How can we as God’s people today benefit from Hosea? What is it that God has to say to us today through this Minor Prophet?

I believe the starting point is determining the theological big idea, which I would summarize as follows: God’s people must turn from their idolatrous pursuit of lovers who will not satisfy and return to the Lord, their true husband and redeemer.

The prophetic books are particularly pointed in their ability to expose the idols in our own hearts. We all have a tendency to pursue other things more than Christ that we think will satisfy us more than Christ. For some of us it might be your career. Or maybe its your hobbies. Or sex. Or money. Or your comfort. Or your children. Or perhaps its even your marriage, which leads me to my next application point.

The God-ordained purpose of marriage is to reflect God’s relationship to his people. Its not our comfort. It not companionship. Its not procreation. Its not personal fulfillment. Don’t misunderstand me; God often gives these precious gifts in marriage. But they are not the purpose of marriage. Unfortunately those things are often presented as the ultimate goal of marriage, even within the church. But that is not biblical! How might a marriage look different if it took seriously this God-ordained purpose? I’d encourage you to talk this over with your spouse.

Finally, I want to conclude by focusing on the precious promise of Hosea 1:10-11. Both Peter (1 Pet 2:9-10) and Paul (Rom 9:25-26) apply that language to us the church. We were once not a people, but now we are the people of God; we previously had not received mercy, but now we have received mercy at the cross. What a God we have who would send his own son to experience his justice so that we might experience his mercy, and may we long for the day when we will sit at the marriage supper of the Lamb with our Redeemer-Husband, Jesus Christ.

Want to hear more? You can check out the audio and the handout below:

Week 4 – Hosea (Audio – NOTE: forgive my voice; I’m fighting off a sinus infection)

Week 4 – Hosea (Handout)

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